Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
21, 4, 2022, 309-329

Influence of a three-component hydraulic binder on the properties of recycled base course with foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion: a field investigation

Grzegorz Mazurek Mail
Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Transportation Engineering, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce
Przemysław Buczyński Mail
Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Transportation Engineering, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce
Marek Iwański Mail
Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Transportation Engineering, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce
Renata Horodecka Mail
Road and Bridge Research Institute, 1 Instytutowa Str., 03-302 Warsaw
Published: 2022-12-30


The article presents an investigation of the effect of the type of hydraulic and bituminous binders on the properties of the obtained cold-recycled base course. The cold-recycled mixtures included two types of binder components, i.e. bituminous binder (in the form of foamed bitumen or bituminous emulsion) and hydraulic binder: Portland cement (CEM I 32.5) or a three-component hydraulic binder. The three-component hydraulic binder was produced by mixing basic components in the following proportions: 40% of CEM-I-32.5R cement; 20% of Ca(OH)2 and 40% of CBPD (cement by-pass dust). Cold-recycled mixtures were produced at the test site under industrial conditions. Ready mixtures with bituminous emulsion (EB-RCM) and foamed bitumen (FB-RCM) were sampled from the test sections and compacted in laboratory conditions. The influence of the used technology and binder types was assessed based on physical and mechanical properties, such as: air void content, indirect tensile strength, stiffness modulus at +5°C and +25°C, compressive strength and creep rate. It was observed that usage of the three-component hydraulic binder in the composition of the recycled base course mixture provided increased cohesion and reduced stiffness at +5°C, regardless of the type of bituminous binder technology used. Moreover, the noted decrease in compressive strength of the FB-RCM mixture containing the three-component hydraulic binder did not result in an increased creep rate. Monitoring of environmental factors indicated that the recycled mixtures maintained stable moisture content.


bituminous emulsion, cold-recycled mixture, contrast analysis, foamed bitumen, hydraulic road binder.

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Influence of a three-component hydraulic binder on the properties of recycled base course with foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion: a field investigation

Mazurek, Grzegorz et al. Influence of a three-component hydraulic binder on the properties of recycled base course with foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion: a field investigation. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 4, p. 309-329, dec. 2022. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 Feb. 2024. doi: