Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
22, 4, 2023, 491-502

Investigation of tertiary Flow Behavior of bitumen stabilised materials with bitumen emulsion

Katarzyna Konieczna Mail
Warsaw University of Technology, 16 Armii Ludowej St., 00-637 Warsaw
Jan Król Mail
Warsaw University of Technology, 16 Armii Ludowej St., 00-637 Warsaw
Published: 2023-12-30


Cold recycling technology is gaining popularity as a sustainable way of rehabilitating existing asphalt pavements. Bitumen Stabilised Materials with bitumen emulsion (BSMs) are cold recycling mixtures (CRMs) that contain RAP, virgin aggregates, bitumen emulsion, water, and active filler and exhibit a combination of mechanical properties of both granular and viscoelastic materials. However, the BSMs’ mechanical performance in terms of viscoelasticity remains insufficiently explored. This study aimed to synthesize and adapt dynamic creep test methods, commonly used for HMA mixes, for characterizing tertiary flow behavior of BSMs. Tests were conducted on BSM mixtures with 50% and 70% RAP content, bitumen emulsion amount in the 4.5%–6.4% range, and 1% cement addition. The designed BSM series were also differentiated in terms of volumetric properties. Permanent deformation (PD) response of Bitumen Stabilised Materials was evaluated based on the analysis of the accumulated permanent strain curves obtained in repeated load tests. The experimental data were fitted to the Francken model, using an originally developed Python calculation script, to determine the Flow Number (FN) values for BSMs under specified loading stress and testing temperature conditions. The study showed that the specification of the Flow Number dynamic creep test parameters for testing BSMs requires an individual approach depending on the composition and volumetric properties of the mixture. With appropriately selected test conditions, the permanent deformation of BSMs can be evaluated by means of fitting the accumulated permanent strain curve to the Francken model and estimating Flow Number values.


Bitumen Stabilised Materials, flow number, tertiary flow, permanent deformation, cold recycling mixtures

Full Text:



Dołżycki B., Jaskuła P.: Review and evaluation of cold recycling with bitumen emulsion and cement for rehabilitation of old pavements. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), 6, 4, 2019, 311–323, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtte.2019.02.002

West R.C.: Best Practices for RAP And RAS Management. NCAT Report No. QIP 129. National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA), Lanham, USA, 2015

Chomicz-Kowalska A., Maciejewski K.: Performance and viscoelastic assessment of high-recycle rate cold foamed bitumen mixtures produced with different penetration binders for rehabilitation of deteriorated pavements. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 120517, 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120517

Charmot S., Teh S.Y., Haris R.F.A., Ayob M.A., Ramzi M.R., Kamal D.D.M., Atan A.: Field performance of bitumen emulsion Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) mixture with same day and delayed overlay compared with traditional rehabilitation procedures. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 17, e01365, 2022, DOI: 10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01365

Bocci M., Canestrari F., Grilli A., Pasquini E., Lioi D.: Recycling Techniques and Environmental Issues Relating to the Widening of a High Traffic Volume Italian Motorway. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 3, 4, 2010, 171–177

Grilli A., Graziani A., Bocci M.: Compactability and thermal sensitivity of cement–bitumen-treated materials. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 13, 4, 2012, 599–617, DOI:10.1080/14680629.2012.742624

Konieczna K., Pokorski P., Sorociak W., Radziszewski P., Żymełka D., Król J.B.: Study of the Stiffness of the Bitumen Emulsion Based Cold Recycling Mixes for Road Base Courses. Materials (Basel), 13, 23, 5473, 2020, DOI: 10.3390/ma13235473

Cold Recycling. Wirtgen Cold Recycling Technology. Wirtgen GmbH. Windhagen, Germany, 2012

Collings D.: Technical Guideline: Bitumen Stabilised Materials. A Guideline for the Design and Construction of Bitumen Emulsion and Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Materials. Southern African Bitumen Association (Sabita), Asphalt Academy, Pretoria, South Africa, 2020

Santagata E., Chiappinelli G., Riviera P.P., Baglieri O.: Triaxial Testing for the Short Term Evaluation of Cold-Recycled Bituminous Mixtures. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 11, 1, 2010, 123–147, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2010.9690263

Pérez I., Medina L., del Val M.A.: Mechanical properties and behaviour of in situ materials which are stabilised with bitumen emulsion. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 14, 2, 2013, 221–238, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2013.779301

Xiao F., Yao S., Wang J., Li X., Amirkhanian S.: A literature review on cold recycling technology of asphalt pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 180, 2018, 579–604, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.06.006

Gonzalez A.: An Experimental Study of the Deformational and Performance Characteristics of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements. PhD thesis. University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2009

Dong W., Charmot S.: Proposed Tests for Cold Recycling Balanced Mixture Design with Measured Impact of Varying Emulsion and Cement Contents. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 31, 2, 2019, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002611

Nivedya M.K., Ravindran P., Murali Krishnan J.: Experimental investigations and constitutive modeling of bitumen stabilized mixtures. International Journal of Engineering Science, 102, 2016, 36–54, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2016.02.008

Jenkins K.J., Collings D.C.: Mix design of bitumen-stabilised materials – South Africa and abroad. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 18, 2, 2017, 331–349, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2016.1213511

Orosa P., Pérez I., Pasandín A.R.: Evaluation of the shear and permanent deformation properties of cold in-place recycled mixtures with bitumen emulsion using triaxial tests. Construction and Building Materials, 328, 27054, 2022, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.127054

Jenkins K. J., Long F.M., Ebels L. J.: Foamed bitumen mixes = shear performance?. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 8, 2, 2007, 85–98, DOI: 10.1080/10298430601149718

Jenkins K.J.: Mix design considerations for cold and half-warm bituminous mixes with emphasis on foamed bitumen. PhD thesis. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2000

Gómez-Meijide B., Pérez I.: Nonlinear elastic behavior of bitumen emulsion-stabilized materials with C&D waste aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 98, 2015, 853–863, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.004

Kim Y., Lee H.D., Heitzman M.: Dynamic Modulus and Repeated Load Tests of Cold In-Place Recycling Mixtures Using Foamed Asphalt. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 21, 6, 2009, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2009)21:6(279)

Kim Y., Lee H.D.: Performance Evaluation of Cold In-place Recycling Mixtures Using Emulsified Asphalt Based on Dynamic Modulus, Flow Number, Flow Time, and Raveling Loss. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 16, 4, 2012, 586–593, DOI:10.1007/s12205-012-1376-0

Silva Vanderlei D., Meneses J.P.C., Vasconcelos K., Bernucci L.L.B.: Permanent Deformation Assessment of Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixtures. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2022, 8247787, 2022, DOI: 10.1155/2022/8247787

Li J., Li M., Hao W.: Key Performance Analysis of Emulsified Asphalt Cold Recycling Mixtures of the Middle Layer of Pavement Structure. Materials, 16, 4, 1613, 2023, DOI: 10.3390/ma16041613

AASHTO T378-22 Standard Method of Test for Determining the Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number for Asphalt Mixtures Using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT)

Tebaldi G., Dave E., Marsac P., Muraya P., Hugener M., Pasetto M., Graziani A., Grilli A., Bocci M., Marradi A., Wendling L., Gaudefroy V., Jenkins K., Loizos A., Canestrari F.: Synthesis of standards and procedures for specimen preparation and in-field evaluation of cold-recycled asphalt mixtures. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 15, 2, 2014, 272–299, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2013.866707

Tebaldi G., Dave E., Hugener M., Cannone Falchetto A., Perraton D., Grilli A.: Cold Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements. in: Testing and Characterization of Sustainable Innovative Bituminous Materials and Systems. State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 237-SIB. RILEM, 2018, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-71023-5

Dołżycki B.: Guidelines for Design and Paving of Mineral-Cement-Emulsion Mixes (MCE) (in Polish). General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways, 2014

PN-EN 13808:2013-10 Asfalty i lepiszcza asfaltowe. Zasady klasyfikacji kationowych emulsji asfaltowych

Biligiri K., Kaloush K.E., Mamlouk M.S., Witczak M.W.: Rational Modeling of Tertiary Flow for Asphalt Mixtures. Paper 07-0344. TRB 86th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers, Washington, DC, January 21–25, 2007

Kaloush K.E., Witczak M.W., Sullivan B.: Simple performance test for permanent deformation evaluation of asphalt mixtures. 6th RILEM Symposium PTEBM’03, Zurich, 2003

Kaloush K.E., Witczak M.W., Roque R., Brown S., D’Angelo J., Marasteanu M., Masad E.:Tertiary flow characteristics of asphalt mixtures (with discussion and closure). Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 71, 2002, 248–280

Mejłun Ł., Jaskuła P.: Odporność na deformacje trwałe betonu asfaltowego przeznaczonego do warstwy ścieralnej z różnymi asfaltami na podstawie badania Flow Number (in Polish). Drogownictwo, 7–8, 2019, 196–202

Francken L.: Pavement Deformation Law of Bituminous Road Mixes in Repeated Load Triaxial Compression. Vol. 1. Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 22–26, 1977

Investigation of tertiary Flow Behavior of bitumen stabilised materials with bitumen emulsion

Konieczna, Katarzyna; Król, Jan. Investigation of tertiary Flow Behavior of bitumen stabilised materials with bitumen emulsion. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 4, p. 491-502, dec. 2023. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 Apr. 2024. doi: