Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
19, 1, 2020, 51-64

Effect of various de-icers containing chloride ions on scaling resistance and chloride penetration depth of highway concrete

Pavel Reiterman Mail
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thakurova 7, 166 29, Prague, Czech Republic
Martin Keppert Mail
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thakurova 7, 166 29, Prague, Czech Republic
Published: 2020-03-31


The use of chloride-based de-icers belongs to the most common road winter maintenance measures applied to prevent dangerous driving conditions. Chloride-based de-icers are the most frequently used worldwide. The essential difficulty with de-icers is their detrimental effect on concrete, other components of the road infrastructure and on vehicles. The interaction of various individual chloride salts with concrete is described in the paper; the experimental programme was focused on evaluation of the most frequently applied chloride-based de-icers in terms of damage to the air-entrained concrete used for highway construction. Three individual salts – NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 – and one blend (NaCl + CaCl2) were used. Their effect on concrete was investigated in terms of surface scaling during freezing-thawing cycles, residual mechanical properties and final ingress of chloride ions. Calcium chloride exhibited the most detrimental effect on the studied concrete.


chloride-based de-icers, chloride ingress, freezing-thawing, residual mechanical properties, wetting-drying cycles.

Full Text:



Wang K., Nelsen D.E., Nixon W.A.: Damaging effects of de-icing chemicals on concrete materials. Cement and Concrete Composites, 28, 2, 2006, 173-188, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2005.07.006

Dang Y., Xie N., Kessel A., McVey E., Pace A., Shi X.: Accelerated laboratory evaluation of surface treatments for protecting concrete bridge decks from salt scaling. Construction and Building Materials, 55, 2014, 128-135, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.014

Lee B.D., Choi Y.S., Kim Y.G., Kim I.S., Yang E.I.: A comparison study of performance and environmental impacts of chloride-based de-icers and eco-label certified de-icers in South Korea. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 143, 2017, 43-51, DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.08.010

Shi X., Fay L., Peterson M.M., Berry M., Mooney M.: A FESEM/EDX investigation into how continuous de-icer exposure affects the chemistry of Portland cement concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2, 2011, 957-966, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.086

Liu Z., Hansen W.: Freezing characteristics of air-entrained concrete in the presence of de-icing salt. Cement and Concrete Research, 74, 2015, 10-18, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.03.015

Pruckner F., Gjřrv O.: Effect of CaCl2 and NaCl additions on concrete corrosivity. Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 7, 2004, 1209-1217, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.12.015

Xu J., Jiang L., Wang W., Jiang Y.: Influence of CaCl2 and NaCl from different sources on chloride threshold value for the corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2, 2011, 663-669, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.07.023

Shi X., Fortune K., Fay L., Smithlin R., Cross D., Yang Z., Wu J.: Longevity of corrosion inhibitors and performance of anti-icing products after pavement application: A case study. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 83-84, 2012, 89-97, DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2012.06.009

Shi X., Fay L., Yang Z., Nguyen T.A., Liu Y.: Corrosion of De-icers to Metals in Transportation Infrastructure: Introduction and Recent Developments. Corrosion Reviews, 27, 1-2, 2009, 23-52, DOI: 10.1515/CORRREV.2009.27.1-2.23

Spragg R.P., Castro J., Li W., Pour-Ghaz M., Huang P.T., Weiss J.: Wetting and drying of concrete using aqueous solutions containing de-icing salts. Cement and Concrete Composites, 33, 5, 2011, 535-542, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.02.009

Egüez Álava H., De Belie N., De Schutter G.: Proposed mechanism for the formation of oxychloride crystals during sodium chloride application as a de-icer salt in carbonated concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 109, 2016, 188-197, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.01.047

Tian W., Han N.: Pore characteristics (>0.1 mm) of non-air entrained concrete destroyed by freeze-thaw cycles based on CT scanning and 3D printing. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 151, 2018, 314-322, DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.03.027

Suprenant B.A.: Freezing concrete as a construction practice. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 11, 2, 1985, 195-197, DOI: 10.1016/0165-232X(85)90018-7

Bager D.H., Sellevold E.J.: Ice formation in hardened cement paste, Part II - drying and resaturation on room temperature cured pastes. Cement and Concrete Research, 16, 6, 1986, 835-844, DOI: 10.1016/0008-8846(86)90006-2

Shang H., Song Y., Ou J.: Behaviour of air-entrained concrete after freeze-thaw cycles. Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica. 22, 3, 2009, 261-266, DOI: 10.1016/S0894-9166(09)60273-1

Farnam Y., Wiese A., Bentz D., Davis J., Weiss J.: Damage development in cementitious materials exposed to magnesium chloride de-icing salt. Construction and Building Materials, 93, 2015, 384-392, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.004

Qiao C., Suraneni P., Weiss J.: Damage in cement pastes exposed to NaCl solutions. Construction and Building Materials, 171, 2018, 120-127, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.123

Brown P., Bothe J., Jr.: The system CaO-Al2O3-CaCl2-H2O at 23±2 °C and the mechanisms of chloride binding in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 9, 2004, 1549-1553, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.03.011

Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Antolik A., Dziedzic K., Glinicki M.A., Gibas K.: Resistance of selected aggregates from igneous rocks to alkali-silica reaction: verification. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, 18, 1, 2019, 67-83, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.019.005

Rajabipour F., Giannini E., Dunant C., Ideker J.H., Thomas M.D.D.: Alkali-silica reaction: Current understanding of the reaction mechanisms and the knowledge gaps. Cement and Concrete Research, 76, 2015, 130-146, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.05.024

Csizmadia J., Balázs G., Tamás F.D.: Chloride ion binding capacity of aluminoferrites. Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 4, 2001, 577-588, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00458-6

Qiao C., Suraneni P., Weiss J.: Flexural strength reduction of cement pastes exposed to CaCl2 solutions, Cement and Concrete Composites, 86, 2018, 297-305, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2017.11.021

Valenza J.J., Vitousek S., Scherer G.W.: Expansion of hardened cement paste in saline solutions, creep, shrinkage and durability mechanics of concrete and other quasi-brittle materials, London, 2005, 207-212.

Dąbrowska M., Giegiczny Z.: Chemical resistance of mortars made of cements with calcerous fly ash. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, 12, 2, 2013, 131-146, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.013.010

Suryavanshi A.K., Narayan Swamy R.: Stability of Friedel’s salt in carbonated concrete structural elements. Cement and Concrete Research, 26, 5, 1996, 729-741, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(96)85010-1

Sutter L., Peterson K., Touton S., Van Dam T., Johnston D.: Petrographic evidence of calcium oxychloride formation in mortars exposed to magnesium chloride solution. Cement and Concrete Research, 36, 8, 2006, 1533-1541, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.05.022

Peterson K., Julio-Betancourt G., Sutter L., Hooton R.D., Johnston D.: Observations of chloride ingress and calcium oxychloride formation in laboratory concrete and mortar at 5°C. Cement and Concrete Research, 45, 2013, 79-90, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.01.001

Santagata M.C., Collepardi M.: The effect of CMA deicers on concrete properties. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 9, 2000, 1389-1394, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00334-3

Bassuoni M.T., Rahman M.M.: Response of concrete to accelerated physical salt attack exposure. Cement and Concrete Research, 79, 2016, 395-408, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.02.006

Balonis M.: Thermodynamic modelling of temperature effects on the mineralogy of Portland cement systems containing chloride. Cement and Concrete Research, 120, 2019, 66-76, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2019.03.011

EN 206: Concrete, performance, production and conformity, The Czech Republic (2018)

CSN 731326: Resistance of cement concrete surface to water and defrosting chemicals, The Czech Republic (1984)

CSN EN 12390-3: Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens, The Czech Republic (2009)

CSN EN 12390-6: Testing hardened concrete - Part 6: Tensile splitting strength of test specimens, The Czech Republic (2009)

Liu J., Miao C., Chen C., Liu J., Cui G.: Effect and mechanism of controlled permeable formwork on concrete water adsorption. Construction and Building Materials, 39, 2013, 129-133, DOI; 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.05.005

Chan S.Y., Ji X.: Comparative study of the initial surface absorption and chloride diffusion of high performance zeolite, silica fume and PFA concretes. Cement and Concrete Composites, 21, 4, 1999, 293-300, DOI: 10.1016/s0958-9465(99)00010-4

Claisse P.A.: Surface tests to determine transport properties of concrete - I: the tests, in: Transport Properties of Concrete, Elsevier, 2014, 26-42, DOI: 10.1533/9781782423195.26

Ghazy A., Bassuoni M.T.: Resistance of concrete to different exposures with chloride-based salts. Cement and Concrete Research, 101, 2017, 144-158, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.09.001

Bernal J., Fenaux M., Moragues A., Reyes E., Gálvez J.C.: Study of chloride penetration in concretes exposed to high-mountain weather conditions with presence of deicing salts. Construction and Building Materials, 127, 2016, 971-983, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.148

Suraneni P., Monical J., Unal E., Farnam Y., Weiss J.: Calcium Oxychloride Formation Potential in Cementitious Pastes Exposed to Blends of Deicing Salt. ACI Materials Journal, 114, 4, 2017, DOI: 10.14359/51689607

Otieno M., Beushausen H., Alexander M.: Chloride-induced corrosion of steel in cracked concrete - Part I: Experimental studies under accelerated and natural marine environments. Cement and Concrete Research, 79, 2016, 373-385, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.08.009

Hájková K., Šmilauer V., Jendele L., Červenka J.: Prediction of reinforcement corrosion due to chloride ingress and its effects on serviceability. Engineering Structures, 174, 2018, 768-777, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.08.006

Gao Y., Zhang J., Zhang S., Zhang Y.: Probability distribution of convection zone depth of chloride in concrete in a marine tidal environment. Construction and Building Materials, 140, 2017, 485-495, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.134

Kwon S.J., Na U.J., Park S.S., Jung S.H.: Service life prediction of concrete wharves with early-aged crack: Probabilistic approach for chloride diffusion. Structural Safety, 31, 1, 2009, 75-83, DOI: 10.1016/j.strusafe.2008.03.004

Shi J., Ming J., Sun W., Zhang Y.: Corrosion performance of reinforcing steel in concrete under simultaneous flexural load and chlorides attack. Construction and Building Materials, 149, 2017, 315-326, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.092

Reiterman P.: Influence of metakaolin additive and nanoparticle surface treatment on the durability of white cement based concrete. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 2018, DOI: 10.1080/19648189.2018.1504235

Kurda R., de Brito J., Silvestre J.D.: Influence of recycled aggregates and high contents of fly ash on concrete fresh properties. Cement and Concrete Composites, 84, 2017, 198-213, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2017.09.009

Shon C.S., Abdigaliyev A., Bagitova S., Chung C.W., Kim D.: Determination of air-void system and modified frost resistance number for freeze-thaw resistance evaluation of ternary blended concrete made of ordinary Portland cement/silica fume/class F fly ash. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 155, 2018, 127-136, DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.08.003

Glinicki M.A., Jaskulski R., Dąbrowski M.: Design principles and testing of internal frost resistance of concrete for road structures. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, 15, 1, 2016, 21-43, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.016.002

Reiterman P., Holčapek O., Zobal O., Keppert M.: Freeze-thaw resistance of cement screed with various supplementary cementitious materials. Reviews on advanced materials science, 58, 1, 2019, 66-74, DOI: 10.1515/rams-2019-0006

Bilek V., Mec P., Zidek L., Moravec T.: Concretes with ternary binders - thinking about frost resistance. Cement, Wapno, Beton, 20, 2015, 72-78

Ye H., Jin X., Fu C., Jin N., Xu Y., Huang T.: Chloride penetration in concrete exposed to cyclic drying-wetting and carbonation. Construction and Building Materials, 112, 2016, 457-463, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.194

Farnam Y., Villani C., Washington T., Spence M., Jain J., Weiss J.W.: Performance of carbonated calcium silicate based cement pastes and mortars exposed to NaCl and MgCl2 de-icing salt. Construction and Building Materials, 111, 2016, 63-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.098

Effect of various de-icers containing chloride ions on scaling resistance and chloride penetration depth of highway concrete

Reiterman, Pavel; Keppert, Martin. Effect of various de-icers containing chloride ions on scaling resistance and chloride penetration depth of highway concrete. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 19, n. 1, p. 51-64, mar. 2020. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 Feb. 2024. doi: