Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
2, 3, 2003, 43-72

Material structures of cement - based composites

Andrzej M. Brandt Mail
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences

Abstract

The term “structure of a material” covers the distribution of its components in space and the set of relations between them that are characteristic for the whole structure. The characterization of a material structure is also completed by data on the properties of the components. The description of a material structure may be based either on assumptions related to an idealized perfect structure or on an analysis of a real structure. In most cases, both approaches are considered and their results are combined. The differences between these two approaches are caused by deviations from ideal models and by local imperfections. The homogeneity of a material is often assumed as an approximation at a given level of analysis and when a material at lower level is considered then its heterogeneous nature becomes obvious. When the models of materials at various levels are built, they are interrelated in a systematic way, or more precisely, the models on a considered level are deduced from the results observed at a lower level. All composite materials, including concrete, are heterogeneous by definition. There is no one generally accepted classification of composites according to their structures. Composites used for construction may be described in terms of the matrix that is the continuous phase, and inclusions – which are embedded in the matrix. Usually, the structures are composed of inclusions strengthen the matrix (reinforcing inclusions: grains, fibres), but also fillers of low strength are used to enhance other properties e.g., thermal insulation, lower weight, etc. The main aim of analysis of the structure of the hardened concrete by all methods is to record the structural defects. Their analysis allows to define how serious and dangerous the defects are with respect to safety and serviceability of the concrete construction. It is also possible to determine the origin and reasons of the defects. The paper presents a survey of the structures of cement-based composites. Structure determines the final material properties. The analysis of structure of a hardened concrete is the basic approach to satisfy the requirements for Quality Assurance and Quality Control of civil engineering constructions made of ordinary and high performance concretes.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Int. Workshop on Structural Image Analysis in Investigations of Concrete. IFTR PAS, Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Structures (AMAS), Warsaw 2002

Mehta P.K.: Concrete technology at the crossroads - problems and opportunities, w: P.K. Mehta Symposium on Durability of Concrete, Nice 1994

Young J.F.: Hydraulic Cements for Concrete. ACI, Detroit, MI, USA 1983

Young J.F., Mindess S., Gray R.J., Bentur A: The science and technology of civil engineering materials, 382, Prentice-Hall, N. Jersey 1998

Brandt A.M.: Cement-based Composites: Materials, Mechanical Properties and Performance. E&FN Spon, 470, London 1995

Kucharska L.: Domieszki upłynniające w betonie, przykłady zastosowań. Beton na Progu Nowego Milenium, Polski Cement, Kraków 2000, 55-72

Uchikawa H.: Effect of blending component on hydration and structure formation. Proc. 8th Int. Congress on Chemistry of Cement, Rio de Janeiro 1986, 77

Zalocha D., Kasperkiewicz J.: Zastosowanie ilościowej analizy obrazu do oceny struktury porów w betonie napowietrzanym. Drogi i Mosty, 2, 2002, 107-118

Johanse V., Andersen P.J.: Particle packing and concrete properties. Materials Science of Concrete II, eds. J. Skalny and S. Mindess, The Amer. Cer. Soc., 111-147, Westerville OH 1991

Dantu P.: Etude des contraintes dans les milieuxheterogenes. Applications au beton. Annales de l’ITBTP, 11 (121), 1957, 55-67

Glinicki M.A.: Wpływ prędkości obciążenia na wytrzymałość i odkształcalność kompozytów z matrycą cementową. Prace IPPT PAN, nr 1, Warszawa 1992, 239

Uchikawa H.: Similarities and discrepancies of hardened cement paste, mortar and concrete from the standpoints of composition and structure. J. of Research of the Onoda Cement Company, 40, No. 119, 1988, 1-24

CEB Bulletin. Durable Concrete Structures, Design Guide 2nd ed., No. 182, Lausanne 1989

Venuat M.: Adjuvants et traitements. Paris 1984, 830

Wee T.H. et al.: Performance of blended cement concretes in a marine environment. Proc. Int. Seminar “Extending Performance of Concrete Structures”, eds: R.K. Dhir and P.A.J. Tittle, Dundee 1999, 261-271

Moranville-Regourd M.: Microstructure des betons ahautes performances, in: Les Betons a Hautes Performances, eds: Y. Malier. Presses de l’ENPC, Paris 1992, 25-44

Materials Research Society MRS. Microstructure of Cement-Based Systems/Bonding and Interfaces in Cementitious Materials, red.: S. Diamond, S. Mindess, F.P. Glasser, L.W. Roberts, J.P. Skalny, L.D. Wakeley, Pittsburgh 1995, 370, 577

Diamond S., Huang J.: The interfacial transition zone: realty or myth? The Interfacial Transition Zone in Cementitious Composites, red.: A. Katz, A. Bentur, M. Alexander, G. Arligui, RILEM, Proc. 35, 1998, 3-42

Goldman A., Bentur A.: :Bond effects in High-Strength Silica-Fume Concretes. ACI Materials Journal, 86, No. 5, 1989, 440-447

Darwin D.: The interfacial transition zone: “Direct” evidence on compressive response. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 370, 1995, 419-427

Potrzebowski J.: Procesy odspajania i wywlekania stalowych włókien z matrycy cementowej. Prace IPPT PAN, nr 15, Warszawa 1991, 199

Betterman L.R., Ouyang C., Shah S.P.: Fiber-matrix interaction in microfiber-reinforced mortar. Adv. Cem. Bas. Mat., nr 2, 1995, 52-61

Rossi P.: Ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes. Concrete International, December 1982, 46-52

Bentur A., Mindess S.: Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites. Elsevier Applied Science, 449, London 1990

Hannant D.J.: Fibre Cements and Fibre Concretes. John Wiley&Sons, Chichester1978, 219

Aveston J., Kelly A.: Theory of multiple fracture of fibrous composites. J. of Materials Science, 3, 8, 1973, 352-362

Kasperkiewicz J.: Struktura wewnętrzna a procesy pękania w kompozytach z kruchą matrycą. Prace IPPT PAN, nr 39, Warszawa 1983, 239

Wittmann H.F.: Structure of concrete with respect to crack formation. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete, eds: F.H. Wittmann, Elsevier 1983, 43-74

Kasperkiewicz J., Zalocha D.: Automatyczna analiza obrazu w ocenie napowietrzenia betonu. 46-ta Konferencja KILiW PAN i KN PZITB, 2, Krynica 2000, 199-206


Material structures of cement - based composites

  
Brandt, Andrzej M.. Material structures of cement - based composites. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 3, p. 43-72, dec. 2014. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 30 Nov. 2020.